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A bystander can be anyone who witnesses an event requiring an emergency medical services response, this can be a fellow community member or a family member. In order to significantly increase the odds of survival a bystander should:

  • Recognize signs and symptoms of cardiac arrest.
  • Call 911.
  • Be prepared to supply the 911 emergency dispatcher with their location (i.e. street address or mile marker on a highway).
  • Continuously administer compressions-only cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) until emergency medical services arrive on the scene and assume CPR.


The evaluation concentrates on statewide initiatives to improve bystanders’ activation of the cardiac system of care and the initiation of bystander CPR.

Barriers to Efficiency

  • Bystander’ ability to articulate time sensitive location and patient information when calling 911 to initiate an emergency medical response.
  • According to the American Heart Association’s CPR Statistics, 70% of Americans either do not know how to administer CPR or have no recent training in CPR.
  • The probability of a bystander witnessing the cardiac arrest in rural areas is significantly lower compared to urban settings.
  • Limited public access to an automated external defibrillator in rural areas.


Community Programs

911 Resources

Bystander Alert

Public AED Access

School Programs

Untraditional CPR/Automated External Defibrillator Training

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