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Research and Evaluation Publications

  • Student Connectivity in Online Programs: Role of the Nurse Faculty
    This article shares results of a survey exploring online student connectivity of graduate nurse practitioner students.
    Author(s): Schroeder, S., Shogren, M., Terras, K.
    Publication: The Journal for Nurse Practitioners, 17(3), 329-334
    Date: March 2021
    Type: Journal Article
  • Evidence-Based Health Promotion Programs Among American Indian, Alaska Native, and Native Hawaiian Communities: A Call to Action to Improve Cultural Relevance and Accessibility
    The report shared information about evidence-based health promotion and disease prevention programs within American Indian, Alaska Native, and Native Hawaiian communities.
    Project: National Resource Center on Native American Aging
    Author(s): Adamsen, C., Bendixen, B., Woodrich-Fernando, M., Goins, T., Joe, J.
    Date: February 2021
    Type: Report
  • Successful Strategies & Lessons Learned from Implementing Evidence-Based Programs in American Indian, Alaska Native, and Native Hawaiian Communities
    This report highlights successful strategies and lessons learned for enhancing program planning and delivery in American Indian, Alaska Native, and Native Hawaiian communities.
    Project: National Resource Center on Native American Aging
    Author(s): Adamsen, C., Bendixen, B., Woodrich-Fernando, M., Goins, T., Joe, J.
    Date: February 2021
    Type: Report
  • The Voices of American Indian, Alaska Native, and Native Hawaiian Elders: Recommendations for Evidence-Based Health Promotion Programs
    This one-page report focuses on what Elder American Indian, Alaska Native, and Native Hawaiian shared from their perspectives on aging, health, and what community-based programs can do to support them.
    Project: National Resource Center on Native American Aging
    Author(s): Adamsen, C., Bendixen, B., Woodrich-Fernando, M., Goins, T., Joe, J.
    Date: February 2021
    Type: Report
  • Evaluation of SEAL!ND: School Year 2019-2020
    This report presents results of an evaluation on the North Dakota School-based Sealant Program (SEAL!ND). The evaluation team at the Center for Rural Health surveyed participating schools, interviewed SEAL!ND team members and additional stakeholders, and reviewed all available student data collected at the time of the dental screenings.
    Project: Oral Health Research and Evaluation
    Author(s): Schroeder, S.
    Date: December 2020
    Type: Report
  • Impact and Reach of SEAL!ND: 2019-2020 School Year
    This brief reports the reach of the North Dakota Department of Health Oral Health Program's school-based sealant program (SEAL!ND). During the 2019-2020 school year, SEAL!ND provided preventive dental care to students in 80 schools throughout North Dakota.
    Project: Oral Health Research and Evaluation
    Author(s): Schroeder, S.
    Date: December 2020
    Type: Policy Brief
  • North Dakota School Personnel's Experience with SEAL!ND 2019-2020 School Year
    This brief describes the results of a survey among school personnel who participated in the school-based sealant program during the 2019-2020 school year. Overall schools were very happy with the program and were looking for assistance in better promoting the program in the future through social media, e-newsletters, and text messaging.
    Project: Oral Health Research and Evaluation
    Author(s): Schroeder, S.
    Date: December 2020
    Type: Policy Brief
  • North Dakota School-Based Sealant Programs: 2019-2020
    This infographic presents the reach of the North Dakota Schools-Based Sealant programs during the 2019-2020 school year. It illustrates the number of children receiving various preventive dental services in schools settings throughout the state.
    Project: Oral Health Research and Evaluation
    Author(s): Schroeder, S.
    Date: December 2020
    Type: Policy Brief
  • North Dakota Department of Health, Oral Health Program: Year Two Evaluation Report
    This report details the results of the evaluation on work completed by the North Dakota Department of Health Oral Health Program during year two of their grant with the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Activities focused on community water fluoridation, statewide oral health surveillance, and implementation of a school-based sealant program (SEAL!ND).
    Project: Oral Health Research and Evaluation
    Author(s): Schroeder, S., Knutson, S.
    Date: November 2020
    Type: Report
  • The Role of Rural and Urban Geography and Gender in Community Stigma Around Mental Illness
    This article describes the role of gender and rural-urban living in perceptions about mental illness in North Dakota. Results are based off of a survey conducted in the fall of 2018; the survey was completed by 749 North Dakota residents.
    Project: Mountain Plains Mental Health Technology Transfer Center
    Author(s): Schroeder, S., Tan, C.M., Urlacher, B., Heitkamp, T.
    Publication: Health Education & Behavior
    Date: November 2020
    Type: Journal Article
  • Rural Health Research RECAP: Rural Ethnic/Racial Disparities: Adverse Health Outcomes
    Rural minority group populations often experience dual disparities in health. This recap summarizes adverse health outcomes across these populations including premature death, age-adjusted mortality, disability status, and obesity rates.
    Project: Rural Health Research Gateway
    Author(s): Ostmo, P.
    Date: November 2020
    Type: Fact Sheet
  • Rural Health Research RECAP: Rural Ethnic/Racial Disparities: Social and Systemic Inequities
    This resource examines social and systemic inequities that influence disparities in health among minority group populations. Rural non-White populations experience both residence-based and racial/ethnicity-based health disparities.
    Project: Rural Health Research Gateway
    Author(s): Ostmo, P.
    Date: November 2020
    Type: Fact Sheet
  • Student Connectivity in Online Programs: Role of the Nurse Faculty
    This study explored the level of connectivity among online nurse practitioner students. The results indicate that nursing faculty must develop high-quality online learning environments with strong teaching methods. Universities should offer professional mentorship to transition nurse clinicians into successful online nurse educators.
    Author(s): Schroeder, S., Shogren, M., Terras, K.
    Publication: The Journal for Nurse Practitioners
    Date: November 2020
    Type: Journal Article
  • Brief: Evaluation of Medical-Dental Integration at the University of North Dakota Center for Family Medicine
    A brief review on the evaluation of the medical-dental integration program implemented by the North Dakota Department of Health Oral Health Program. The brief also offers a summary and recommendations for future medical-dental integration in North Dakota.
    Project: Oral Health Research and Evaluation
    Author(s): Schroeder, S., Knutson, S.
    Date: September 2020
    Type: Policy Brief
  • Evaluation Report: Medical-Dental Integration at the University of North Dakota Center for Family Medicine
    A full, comprehensive report on the evaluation of the medical-dental integration program implemented by the North Dakota Department of Health Oral Health Program. The report provider date on patient reach and medical resident and staff knowledge of oral health, and also offers a summary and recommendations for future medical-dental integration.
    Project: Oral Health Research and Evaluation
    Author(s): Schroeder, S., Knutson, S.
    Date: September 2020
    Type: Report
  • Medical-Dental Integration Manual
    This manual is intended for North Dakota primary care and pediatric providers interested in improving the oral health of patients by integrating a registered dental hygienist into a medical care team. The content in the manual is specific to North Dakota, particularly for topics addressing billing, contracting, rules and regulations, and scope of dental hygiene practice.
    Project: Oral Health Research and Evaluation
    Author(s): Bopp, V., Schroeder, S., Kiefer, C.
    Date: September 2020
    Type: Report
  • Dental Student Rotations at a Federally Qualified Health Center
    This brief provides a summary of the clinical reach of the dental student rotations and the perceptions of both the participating dental students and FQHC dental team members.
    Project: Oral Health Research and Evaluation
    Author(s): Schroeder, S., Knutson, S.
    Date: August 2020
    Type: Policy Brief
  • Evaluation of Dental Student Rotations in North Dakota Federally Qualified Health Centers
    This report provides data on the clinical reach of this program and the perceptions of both the participating dental students and FQHC dental team members. The report presents findings from years one and two.
    Project: Oral Health Research and Evaluation
    Author(s): Schroeder, S., Knutson, S.
    Date: August 2020
    Type: Report
  • Smiles for Life: Data Snapshot
    Smiles for Life is a comprehensive, online oral health curriculum designed to promote oral health for all age groups through high-quality educational resources. This infographic highlights the reach of Smiles for Life over the last 12 months.
    Project: Oral Health Research and Evaluation
    Author(s): Breigenzer, A., Schroeder, S.
    Date: July 2020
    Type: Fact Sheet
  • Dental Pain Management in Dental Clinics, Emergency Rooms, and Primary Care Settings in North Dakota
    This fact sheet describes emergency room data and results from a survey among North Dakota dentists to better understand dental pain management, dentists' screening practices, and risk factors associated with and predictive of opioid prescribing behavior.
    Project: Oral Health Research and Evaluation
    Author(s): Schroeder, S., Knutson, S.
    Date: June 2020
    Type: Fact Sheet
  • Mental Health Resources for K-12 Educators During COVID-19
    This product compiles all recent toolkits, guides, tip sheets, and infographics that have been developed by reputable sources to assist educators throughout the current health pandemic (COVID-19).
    Project: Mountain Plains Mental Health Technology Transfer Center
    Author(s): Schroeder, S., Heitkamp, T., Diers, L., Winfield, S.
    Date: April 2020
    Type: Fact Sheet
  • Mental Health Resources for Parents and Caregivers During COVID-19
    This product compiles all recent toolkits, guides, tip sheets, and infographics that have been developed by reputable sources to assist parents and caregivers throughout the current health pandemic (COVID-19).
    Project: Mountain Plains Mental Health Technology Transfer Center
    Author(s): Schroeder, S., Heitkamp, T., Diers, L., Winfield, S.
    Date: April 2020
    Type: Fact Sheet
  • The Big 4-0: From Its Humble Beginning, CRH Has Worked to Improve Health in Rural and Tribal Communities
    The Center for Rural Health celebrates 40 years of connecting resources and knowledge to strengthen the health of people in rural and tribal communities.
    Author(s): Haugen, B.
    Publication: Focus on Rural Health
    Date: March 2020
    Type: Article
  • Executive Summary: Mental Health Training and Technical Assistance Needs Among Probation and Parole Officers in Region 8
    This is an executive summary of the larger report, Mental Health Training and Technical Assistance Needs: Findings, Implications, and Summary of a Survey of Probation and Parole Officers in Region 8. The brief summarizes the mental health training needs of probation and parole officers in the six-state region and provides recommendations for future work.
    Project: Mountain Plains Mental Health Technology Transfer Center
    Author(s): Schroeder, S., Heitkamp, T., Martinefski, D.
    Date: March 2020
    Type: Policy Brief
  • Psychometric Evaluation of the Substance Abuse Subtle Screening Inventory-3 With Northern Plains American Indians
    The efficacy of the Substance Abuse Subtle Screening Inventory-3 was assessed among Northern Plains American Indians.
    Author(s): Gray, J., Petros, T., Ayala, E.
    Publication: Psychological Services
    Date: March 2020
    Type: Journal Article
  • High Rates of Decay and Need for Dental Treatment Among American Indian and Alaska Native Kindergartners in North Dakota
    During the 2018-2019 school year, each of the 1,998 kindergartners enrolled in the 43 participating schools received a dental screening. This fact sheet describes the results of this screening and identified racial disparities.
    Project: Oral Health Research and Evaluation
    Author(s): Schroeder, S., Knutson, S.
    Date: February 2020
    Type: Fact Sheet
  • High Rates of Decay and Need for Dental Treatment Among Rural Kindergartners in North Dakota
    During the 2018-2019 school year, each of the 1,998 kindergartners enrolled in the 43 participating schools received a dental screening. This fact sheet describes the results of this screening and identified geographic disparities.
    Project: Oral Health Research and Evaluation
    Author(s): Schroeder, S., Knutson, S.
    Date: February 2020
    Type: Fact Sheet
  • Medical - Dental Integration in North Dakota
    This fact sheet describes the reach, patients served, and the outcomes of a medical-dental integration model employed in the University of North Dakota's Center for Family Medicine in Bismarck. This integrated care model provides dental screenings, fluoride varnish application, dental referrals, and care coordination for patients in the primary care setting while also educating medical residents and direct care staff quarterly on the direct relationship between oral health and overall health.
    Project: Oral Health Research and Evaluation
    Author(s): Schroeder, S., Knutson, S.
    Date: February 2020
    Type: Fact Sheet
  • Progress and Reach of the SEAL!ND Program: 2018-2019 School Year
    This fact sheet details the progress and reach of the North Dakota school-based dental sealant program through 2019.
    Project: Oral Health Research and Evaluation
    Author(s): Schroeder, S., Knutson, S.
    Date: February 2020
    Type: Fact Sheet
  • Colorado Probation and Parole: Mental Health Training Needs
    This fact sheet describes specific results for the state of Colorado from a survey assessing the mental health training needs among probation and parole officers throughout U.S. Department of Health & Human Services Region 8.
    Project: Mountain Plains Mental Health Technology Transfer Center
    Author(s): Schroeder, S.
    Date: January 2020
    Type: Fact Sheet
  • Mental Health Training and Technical Assistance Needs: Findings, Implications, and Summary of a Survey of Probation and Parole Officers in Region 8
    This report describes the results of a survey assessing the mental health training needs among probation and parole officers throughout the U.S. Department of Health & Human Services Region 8. The report includes an overall assessment, a presentation of training needs among rural and urban probation and parole officers, varied training needs between probation and parole, and state specific reports.
    Project: Mountain Plains Mental Health Technology Transfer Center
    Author(s): Schroeder, S., Heitkamp, T., Martinefski, D.
    Date: January 2020
    Type: Report
  • Montana Probation and Parole: Mental Health Training Needs
    This fact sheet describes specific results for the state of Montana from a survey assessing the mental health training needs among probation and parole officers throughout U.S. Department of Health & Human Services Region 8.
    Project: Mountain Plains Mental Health Technology Transfer Center
    Author(s): Schroeder, S.
    Date: January 2020
    Type: Fact Sheet
  • North Dakota Probation and Parole: Mental Health Training Needs
    This fact sheet describes specific results for the state of North Dakota from a survey assessing the mental health training needs among probation and parole officers throughout U.S. Department of Health & Human Services Region 8.
    Project: Mountain Plains Mental Health Technology Transfer Center
    Author(s): Schroeder, S.
    Date: January 2020
    Type: Fact Sheet
  • Reach of the Mountain Plains Mental Health Technology Transfer Center School Based Program: Year One Snapshot
    This fact sheet provides an overview of the Mountain Plains Mental Health Technology Transfer Center's School Based Mental Health Program and the reach of the program in grant year one. The fact sheet describes the number of free, school-based mental health trainings held, school-based products developed, the number of people reached, and the participants' perceptions of these trainings. Grant year one includes August 15, 2018, through August 14, 2019.
    Project: Mountain Plains Mental Health Technology Transfer Center
    Author(s): Schroeder, S.
    Date: January 2020
    Type: Fact Sheet
  • Reach of the Mountain Plains Mental Health Technology Transfer Center: Year One Snapshot
    This fact sheet provides an overview of the Mountain Plains Mental Health Technology Transfer Center and the reach of the program in grant year one. The fact sheet describes the number of free mental health trainings held, products developed, number of people reached, and the participants' perceptions of these trainings. Grant year one includes August 15, 2018, through August 14, 2019.
    Project: Mountain Plains Mental Health Technology Transfer Center
    Author(s): Schroeder, S.
    Date: January 2020
    Type: Fact Sheet
  • South Dakota Probation and Parole: Mental Health Training Needs
    This fact sheet describes specific results for the state of South Dakota from a survey assessing the mental health training needs among probation and parole officers throughout U.S. Department of Health & Human Services Region 8.
    Project: Mountain Plains Mental Health Technology Transfer Center
    Author(s): Schroeder, S.
    Date: January 2020
    Type: Fact Sheet
  • Utah Probation and Parole: Mental Health Training Needs
    This fact sheet describes specific results for the state of Utah from a survey assessing the mental health training needs among probation and parole officers throughout U.S. Department of Health & Human Services Region 8.
    Project: Mountain Plains Mental Health Technology Transfer Center
    Author(s): Schroeder, S.
    Date: January 2020
    Type: Fact Sheet
  • Wyoming Probation and Parole: Mental Health Training Needs
    This fact sheet describes specific results for the state of Wyoming from a survey assessing the mental health training needs among probation and parole officers throughout U.S. Department of Health & Human Services Region 8.
    Project: Mountain Plains Mental Health Technology Transfer Center
    Author(s): Schroeder, S.
    Date: January 2020
    Type: Fact Sheet
  • All of Us Research Program Makes Stops in North Dakota
    In its efforts to enroll at least 1 million volunteers, the All of Us Research Program visited three communities in North Dakota this year, including Fargo, Grand Forks, and Williston.
    Author(s): Haugen, B.
    Publication: Focus on Rural Health
    Date: November 2019
    Type: Article
  • Dissemination of Rural Health Research: A Toolkit
    This toolkit aims to assist researchers with disseminating their work among diverse audiences, including health consumers, stakeholders, and policymakers at the local, state, and national levels. The toolkit provides descriptions for multiple modes of dissemination and includes discussion of the purpose of each product, which product is appropriate given the topic and audience, and how to develop each. Effective examples are also provided.
    Project: Rural Health Research Gateway
    Author(s): Schroeder, S., Bauman, S.
    Date: August 2019
    Type: Report
  • Rural Health Research RECAP: Healthcare Access and Status Among Rural Children
    More than half (56.6%) of all rural counties in the U.S. do not have a pediatrician, which can have a negative effect on the health status of rural children. This recap provides a summary of the research on pediatric health status, health outcomes, and access to care in rural areas.
    Project: Rural Health Research Gateway
    Author(s): Bauman, S., Schroeder, S.
    Date: August 2019
    Type: Fact Sheet
  • Rural Health Research RECAP: Poverty and Health Insurance Coverage Among Rural Children
    This recap examines pediatric insurance coverage, poverty rates, and Medicaid enrollment by race/ethnicity in rural and urban communities. It also presents a summary of the research on the impact of coverage on rural access to care.
    Project: Rural Health Research Gateway
    Author(s): Bauman, S., Schroeder, S.
    Date: August 2019
    Type: Fact Sheet
  • NRCNAA: Supporting Those Who Stand in the Gap for Native Elders
    Native service providers say the National Resource Center on Native American Aging helps them secure resources, guides their interventions, and fosters collaboration.
    Project: National Resource Center on Native American Aging
    Author(s): Herting, A., Adamsen, C.
    Date: April 2019
    Type: Fact Sheet
  • Driven by Data, Fueled by Figures, Stoked by Statistics
    The North Dakota Healthcare Workforce Group uses data to provide accurate feedback and data driven recommendations for future rural health policies.
    Author(s): Leier, M.
    Publication: Focus on Rural Health
    Date: January 2019
    Type: Article
  • Reworks: A Robust System Efficiency Measure
    This article reports on the inaugural Australian-American system evaluation summit convened in Wyoming, focusing on the application of system evaluation theory.
    Author(s): Renger, R., Keogh, B., Hawkins, A., Foltysova, J., Souvannasacd, E.
    Publication: Evaluation Journal of Australasia
    Date: September 2018
    Type: Journal Article
  • A Medical Journalist Insider
    Dr. Kay Miller Temple is a medical writer for Rural Health Information Hub. She is also a physician with over 30 years of experience. That, coupled with her rural upbringing, helps her research and write articles with a unique perspective on complex rural health issues.
    Author(s): Leier, M.
    Date: May 2018
    Type: Other
  • Disrespect of Our Elders: Elder Abuse in Indian Country
    This Research to Practice series examines the fact that little research data exists involving American Indian and Alaska Native elder abuse and neglect. It makes recommendations for practice and policy when working with American Indians and Alaska Natives.
    Project: National Indigenous Elder Justice Initiative
    Author(s): Gray, J.
    Date: November 2017
    Type: Other
  • Identifying Variability in Patient Characteristics and Prevalence of Emergency Department Utilization for Mental Health Diagnoses in Rural and Urban Communities
    Patients needing behavioral healthcare can get more appropriate, cost-effective treatment if they are redirected from emergency departments (EDs). This study examined whether a larger proportion of rural versus urban patients went to went to EDs.
    Project: Rural Health Reform Policy Research Center
    Author(s): Schroeder, S., Peterson, M.
    Publication: The Journal of Rural Health
    Date: October 2017
    Type: Journal Article
  • Defining Systems to Evaluate System Efficiency and Effectiveness
    Article focuses on the application of systems thinking, systems theory and systems evaluation theory (SET) in evaluating of modern day systems efficiency and effectiveness.
    Author(s): Renger, R., Foltysova, J., Renger, J., Booze, W.
    Publication: Evaluation Journal of Australasia, 17(3), 4-13
    Date: August 2017
    Type: Journal Article
  • Home is Where the Heart Is: Insights on the Coordination and Delivery of Home Health Services in Rural America
    Access to home health in rural areas is an important public policy concern, particularly with the growing number of older adults residing in rural America. This qualitative study seeks to better understand how home health services are provided in rural areas, and identifies facilitators and barriers to providing care.
    Project: Rural Health Reform Policy Research Center
    Author(s): Knudson, A., Anderson, B., Schueler, K., Arsen, E.
    Date: August 2017
    Type: Policy Brief
  • Use of the Emergency Department for Mental Health and Substance Abuse Among Women
    A study by the Rural Health Reform Research Center shows that women with mental health (MH) and substance abuse (SA) issues are putting a strain on emergency departments (EDs). This study helps identify trends among women in rural and urban communities who utilize the ED for MH/SA. The information can be used to help communities provide more relevant, appropriate, and less costly care.
    Project: Rural Health Reform Policy Research Center
    Author(s): Schroeder, S., Peterson, M., Jaeger, J.
    Date: July 2017
    Type: Fact Sheet
  • Evaluating System Cascading Failures
    In the article, Renger and coauthors share methods used to evaluate system cascading failures.
    Author(s): Renger, R., Foltysova, J., Ienuso, S., Renger, J., Booze, W.
    Publication: Evaluation Journal of Austalasia, 17(2), 29-36
    Date: June 2017
    Type: Journal Article
  • Rural and Urban Utilization of the Emergency Department for Mental Health and Substance Abuse
    Utilizes data from the Healthcare Cost and Utilization Project's State Emergency Department Databases for seven states. Researchers explore, and describe in this brief, the use of the Emergency Department for mental health and substance abuse among Urban, Large Rural, Small Rural, and Isolated Small Rural residents.
    Project: Rural Health Reform Policy Research Center
    Author(s): Schroeder, S., Peterson, M.
    Date: June 2017
    Type: Policy Brief
  • Being Smart about Writing SMART Objectives
    Article discusses the issues that occur when baseline data is missing when using the mainstream SMART method for developing program objectives. Also offers guidance on delineating between different contexts when using the SMART method.
    Author(s): Bjerke, M., Renger, R.
    Publication: Evaluation and Program Planning, 61, 125-127
    Date: April 2017
    Type: Journal Article
  • An Interprofessional Programme to Culturally Sensitise Students to the Needs of Patients and Realities of Practice in Rural Areas
    The University of North Dakota programme, Students/residents Experiences And Rotations in Community Health (SEARCH), was implemented to address recruitment and retention problems and stereotypes associated with practicing in rural areas.
    Author(s): Schuller, K., Amundson, M., McPherson, M., Halaas, G.
    Publication: Journal of Interprofessional Care, 28, 1-3
    Date: February 2017
    Type: Journal Article
  • Illustrating the Evaluation of System Feedback Mechanisms using System Evaluation Theory (SET)
    This article illustrates how system evaluation theory guided the evaluation of system feedback mechanisms within the cardiac care response systems of seven rural states.
    Author(s): Renger, R.
    Publication: Evaluation Journal of Australasia, 16(4), 14-20
    Date: December 2016
    Type: Journal Article
  • Oral Health Among North Dakota Medicaid Recipients
    Examines dental care utilization among Medicaid recipients in North Dakota.
    Author(s): Schroeder, S.
    Date: October 2016
    Type: Fact Sheet
  • Oral Health Programs in North Dakota
    Policy Brief detailing current oral health initiatives in North Dakota.
    Author(s): Schroeder, S., Fix, N.
    Date: October 2016
    Type: Policy Brief
  • Where did North Dakota Primary Care Physicians Graduate from Medical School and Where Have North Dakota Medical School Graduates Gone?
    Examines where physicians practicing in North Dakota attended medical school and where North Dakota medical school students currently practice.
    Project: State Office of Rural Health
    Author(s): Hart, G., Peterson, M., Ahmed, A.
    Publication: North Dakota Health Workforce Fact Sheet Series, Number 23
    Date: September 2016
    Type: Fact Sheet
  • Challenges and Solutions Facing EMS in Supporting the IOM Recommendation for a National Cardiac Arrest Registry: A System Perspective
    This white paper uses systems theory to focus on the feasibility of the Institute of Medicine's recommendation to support a national cardiac arrest registry.
    Author(s): Renger, R., Qin, X, Rice, D., Foltysova, J., Souvannasacd, E., Renger, J. Markwart, B., Hart, G., Bjerke, M.B.
    Date: September 2016
    Type: Report
  • Suggested Guidelines for Writing Reflective Case Narratives
    Discusses the use of adult learning theory to restructure case narratives so as to increase their effectiveness as a resource for transferring knowledge, sharing ideas, and keeping a pulse on the dynamic and fluid process of evaluation.
    Author(s): Becker, K., Renger, R.
    Publication: American Journal of Evaluation
    Date: August 2016
    Type: Journal Article
  • Dentists Providing Oral Healthcare to Long Term Care Residents: Survey Chartbook & Four North Dakota Case Studies
    The survey was to assist in identifying providers for case study, and to identify barriers to providing care in long term care facilities.
    Author(s): Schroeder, S., Bright, P.
    Date: July 2016
    Type: Report
  • Process Flow Mapping for Systems Improvement: Lessons Learned
    The article details how to conduct process flow mapping for systems improvement. The method and its importance are explained in the context of evaluating a cardiac care system.
    Author(s): Renger, R., McPherson, M., Kontz-Bartels, T., Becker, K.
    Publication: The Canadian Journal of Program Evaluation, 31(1)
    Date: July 2016
    Type: Journal Article
  • Oral Healthcare in North Dakota Long Term Care Facilities
    Examines survey results of oral healthcare in long term care facilities throughout North Dakota.
    Author(s): Schroeder, S.
    Date: June 2016
    Type: Fact Sheet
  • Dental Workforce in Rural and Urban North Dakota
    Examines dental health workforce in both rural and urban North Dakota.
    Author(s): Schroeder, S.
    Date: June 2016
    Type: Fact Sheet
  • National Data Collection Efforts Pose Challenges for Many EMS Agencies
    Rural EMS agencies face challenges in participating in national data collection efforts. The article presents the consequences of these challenges and propose some suggestions for EMS leadership when confronted with requests to participate in national data collection efforts. Note: Login is required.
    Author(s): Renger, R., Qin, X., Rice, D., Foltysova, J., & Renger, J.
    Publication: EMS Insider
    Date: June 2016
    Type: Journal Article
  • Oral Health Services and Barriers to Care in North Dakota Long Term Care Facilities: Chartbook
    Long term care facility staff completed a survey to identify current oral health practices, and barriers to providing oral healthcare to facility residents in North Dakota.
    Author(s): Schroeder, S., Bright, P.
    Date: March 2016
    Type: Report
  • Exploring Rural and Urban Mortality
    Exploring Rural and Urban Mortality Differences examines the impact of rurality on mortality and explores regional differences in mortality rates. This study used a quantitative analysis approach drawing upon the data available from the National Vital Statistics System (NVSS) at CDC WONDER. Exploring Rural and Urban Mortality Differences contains visual aids which displays indicators of mortality rates by cause of death (multiple cause of death), age group, rural-urban status, region, and sex for populations 15 years of age and older cross-referenced to tables and statistical results.
    Project: Rural Health Reform Policy Research Center
    Author(s): Knudson, A., Meit, M., Tanenbaum, E., Brady, J., Gilbert, T., Klug, M., Arsen, E., Popat, S., Schroeder, S.
    Date: February 2016
    Type: Report
  • American Indian Health Research Conference
    The American Indian Health Research Conference showcases all areas of health research done by students and faculty, and provides a forum for collaborating on culturally appropriate research.
    Project: American Indian Health Research Conference
    Author(s): Massmann, N.
    Publication: Focus on Rural Health
    Date: December 2015
    Type: Article
  • System Evaluation Theory (SET): A Practical Framework for Evaluators to Meet the Challenges of System Evaluation
    The article presents a guiding framework for evaluators to conduct systems evaluation: system evaluation theory (SET). The article defines systems, system theory, and system thinking, as well as discusses the confusion in evaluation literature surrounding the use of these terms. Three guiding principles for evaluating modern day systems are presented.
    Author(s): Renger, R.
    Publication: Evaluation Journal of Australasia, 15(4), 16-28
    Date: December 2015
    Type: Journal Article
  • Assessment of Anxiety Among Northern Plains Indians
    Article examines the reliability and validity of the Beck Anxiety Inventory by comparing scores among three different diagnostic categories.
    Author(s): Gray, J., McCullagh, J., Petros, T.
    Publication: American Journal of Orthopsychiatry
    Date: November 2015
    Type: Journal Article
  • Indicators of Buy-in to Gauge Evaluation Success
    The article suggests a set of indicators of buy-in that novice evaluators can use to assess stakeholder engagement and responsiveness. It also showcases a tracking tool which serves as a systematic, responsive prompt to monitor buy-in.
    Author(s): Becker, K., Renger, R., McPherson, M.
    Publication: Evaluation Journal of Australasia, 15(2), 12-21
    Date: June 2015
    Type: Journal Article
  • Brushing Up on Dental Care in North Dakota
    The Center for Rural Health makes recommendations based on a study of ways to improve North Dakotans' oral health.
    Author(s): Massmann, N.
    Publication: Focus on Rural Health
    Date: March 2015
    Type: Article
  • Perspectives of Rural Hospice Directors
    Examines hospice care within a rural context, including issues regarding regulations, finance/reimbursement, workforce, general rural issues, relationships with other organizations, and technology. Identifies concerns of hospice directors in rural settings.
    Project: Rural Health Reform Policy Research Center
    Author(s): Gibbens, B., Schroeder, S., Knudson, A. and Hart, G.
    Date: March 2015
    Type: Policy Brief
  • Intra Rural and Urban Primary Care Physician Findings: AAMC 2009 Physician Survey of Primary Care Chartbook
    This publication was produced for the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Health Resources and Services Administration, Office of Rural Health Policy by Gary Hart Associated under HRSA contract. The report utilizes primary care physician (PCP) survey data, collected by the Association of American Medical Colleges (AAMC) in 2009/2010 shortly before the Affordable Care Act was made law to preserve a baseline from which to compare future post Affordable Care Act implementation surveys.
    Author(s): Hart, G.
    Date: February 2015
    Type: Report
  • Policy Brief: Use and Performance Variations in U.S. Rural Emergency Departments: Implications for Improving Care Quality and Reducing Costs
    Rural areas have a higher prevalence of subpopulations (younger, low income, and uninsured) that use the Emergency Department (ED) for non-emergent purposes than urban areas. ZIP Code areas with fewer than five primary care physicians per 10,000 had populations that were more likely to use those EDs for non-emergent conditions.
    Project: Rural Health Reform Policy Research Center
    Author(s): Jonk, Y., Klug, M., & Hart, G.
    Date: February 2015
    Type: Policy Brief
  • Conducting Community Health Needs Assessments in Rural Communities
    Article addresses the lessons learned in conducting community health needs assessments and discusses the Rural Community Group Model for conducting assessments.
    Project: Community Health Needs Assessment
    Author(s): Becker, Karin L.
    Publication: Health Promotion Practice, 16(1), 15-19
    Date: January 2015
    Type: Journal Article
  • North Dakota Oral Health Report: Needs and Proposed Models, 2014
    Needs, outcomes, findings, and stakeholder recommendations from the 2014 assessment of oral health need and policy recommendations for North Dakota.
    Author(s): Schroeder, S., Jonk, Y., Schuller, K., Hall, K., Hart, G., Gibbens, B.
    Date: December 2014
    Type: Report
  • North Dakota Oral Health Report: Needs and Proposed Models, 2014 Executive Summary
    Executive Summary for the full North Dakota Oral Health Report. Reviews the findings from the 2014 assessment of oral health in North Dakota.
    Author(s): Schroeder, S., Jonk, Y., Schuller, K., Hall, K., Hart, G., & Gibbens, B.
    Date: December 2014
    Type: Report
  • Policy Brief: Rural-Urban Disparities in Heart Disease
    Heart disease is the leading cause of death in the United States, claiming about 600,000 lives annually. This policy brief highlights rural-urban disparities in heart disease and focuses on three measures: 1) death rates for ischemic heart disease (IHD) among persons 20 years of age and older, 2) obesity among persons 18 years of age and older, and 3) physical inactivity during leisure time among persons 18 years of age and older.
    Project: Rural Health Reform Policy Research Center
    Author(s): Knudson, A., Meit, M., & Popat, S.
    Date: October 2014
    Type: Policy Brief
  • Collaborating to Improve Cardiac Care
    Evaluating a lifesaving device leads to a cooperative effort to review statewide cardiac care. The Leona M. and Harry B. Helmsley Charitable Trust provided mechanical CPR devices to ambulances in North Dakota to improve outcomes.
    Author(s): Massmann, N.
    Publication: Focus on Rural Health
    Date: September 2014
    Type: Article
  • Lessons Learned in Testing the Feasibility of Evaluating Transfer of Training to an Operations Setting
    Article explores the feasibility, identifies challenges, and offers solutions to evaluation transfer of training to the operations setting. Eight lessons are shared including the need to design training courses to align to an operation-based exercise.
    Author(s): Renger, R.; Granillo, B.
    Publication: Journal of Public Health Management & Practice, 20(5), 30-36
    Date: September 2014
    Type: Journal Article
  • Contributing Factors to the Continued Blurring of Evaluation and Research: Strategies for Moving Forward
    Article published in the Canadian Journal of Program Evaluation that examines contributing factors to purpose-method incongruence for evaluation and research.
    Author(s): Renger, R.
    Publication: Canadian Journal of Program Evaluation, 29(1), 104-117
    Date: May 2014
    Type: Journal Article
  • Deliberation Derived Process (DDP) Evaluation
    Describes a methodology for conducting process evaluations.
    Author(s): Renger, R., Foltysova, J.
    Publication: Evaluation Journal of Australasia
    Date: November 2013
    Type: Journal Article
  • Rural Hospice in the United States: An Annotated Review of the Literature
    Contains an annotated review of hospice literature published between 2000 and 2013; specifically, resources that have addressed rural hospice care, access, and utilization. The presentation of information begins with an overview of hospice organizations and agencies cited most frequently in the literature along with a discussion of their most recent research.
    Project: Rural Health Reform Policy Research Center
    Author(s): Schroeder, S.
    Date: October 2013
    Type: Report
  • Assessment of the North Dakota Dementia Care Services Program
    Discusses the North Dakota Dementia Care Services Program which works to increase caregiver knowledge about dementia, caregiving, and decrease caregiver stress.
    Author(s): Klug, M. G., Peterson, M.
    Date: July 2013
    Type: Report
  • Care Consultation Distances to Potential Caregivers: Weighted Population Estimates
    Discusses the North Dakota Dementia Care Services Program which works to increase caregiver knowledge about dementia, caregiving, and decrease caregiver stress.
    Author(s): Klug, M. G., Peterson, M.
    Date: July 2013
    Type: Report
  • The Reciprocal Relationship Between Implementation Theory and Program Theory in Assisting Program Design and Decision-Making
    Discusses how Theory Driven Evaluation and two if its central tenets – program theory and implementation theory – can be used to inform and assist programmatic decision-making.
    Author(s): Renger, R., Bartel, G., Foltysova, J.
    Publication: Canadian Journal of Program Evaluation, 28(1), 27-41
    Date: March 2013
    Type: Journal Article
  • Reducing Healthcare Costs for Dementia Patients: Estimating Savings from a Caregiver Support Program
    Provides information on estimated cost savings based on limited healthcare events within a short time span for a dementia care program.
    Author(s): Klug, M.G., Muus, K., Volkov, B. & Halaas, G.W.
    Date: December 2012
    Type: Journal Article
  • North Dakota Dementia Care Services Program (DCSP): Caregivers' Attributes and Service Use
    Discusses the North Dakota Dementia Care Services Program which works to increase caregiver knowledge about dementia and caregiving, and decrease caregiver stress. Number 2 in a four-part series.
    Author(s): Klug, M., & Muus, K.
    Date: October 2012
    Type: Fact Sheet
  • North Dakota Dementia Care Services Program (DCSP): Characteristics of Persons with Dementia
    Discusses the North Dakota Dementia Care Services Program which works to increase caregiver knowledge about dementia and caregiving, and decrease caregiver stress. Number 3 in a four-part series.
    Author(s): Klug, M., & Muus, K.
    Date: October 2012
    Type: Fact Sheet
  • North Dakota Dementia Care Services Program (DCSP): Impact on Caregiver Support and Estimated Health/Long-Term Care Cost Savings
    Discusses the North Dakota Dementia Care Services Program which works to increase caregiver knowledge about dementia and caregiving, and decrease caregiver stress. Number 4 in a four-part series.
    Author(s): Klug, M., & Muus, K.
    Date: October 2012
    Type: Fact Sheet
  • North Dakota Dementia Care Services Program (DCSP): Utilization Increases Over Time
    The intent of the DCSP is to increase caregiver knowledge about dementia and caregiving, decrease caregiver stress, and coincide with estimated health and long-term care cost savings.
    Author(s): Klug, M., & Muus, K.
    Date: October 2012
    Type: Fact Sheet
  • Where Did North Dakota Physicians do their Residency and Where Have North Dakota Residency Graduates Gone?
    Examines where North Dakota Physicians did their residency and where North Dakota residency graduates are practicing.
    Project: State Office of Rural Health
    Author(s): Klug, M., Hart, G., Peterson, M.
    Publication: North Dakota Health Workforce Fact Sheet Series, Number 8
    Date: June 2012
    Type: Fact Sheet
  • Where Did North Dakota Physicians Graduate from Medical School and Where Have North Dakota Medical School Graduates Gone?
    Examines where North Dakota Physicians attended medical school and where North Dakota medical school graduates are practicing.
    Project: State Office of Rural Health
    Author(s): Klug, M., Hart, G., Peterson, M.
    Publication: North Dakota Health Workforce Fact Sheet Series, Number 7
    Date: June 2012
    Type: Fact Sheet
  • Residency Locations in North Dakota
    Examines the locations and duration of North Dakota's medical residency positions by specialty.
    Project: State Office of Rural Health
    Author(s): Klug, M., Hart, G., Peterson, M.
    Publication: North Dakota Health Workforce Fact Sheet Series, Number 6
    Date: June 2012
    Type: Fact Sheet
  • Deciding When to Put Grandma in the Nursing Home: Measuring Inclinations to Place Persons with Dementia
    For caregivers of persons with dementia, estimating when that person should be placed in long-term care is difficult. Healthcare providers also find it hard to give an exact time as to when the person should be placed. Using data from 197 caregivers working with the Dementia Care Services Project in North Dakota, we show that asking the caregiver about their inclination to place can be equated to asking them for a specific time to place (k = .616). Using the probability density function of time to place we were able to translate it into inclination. This inclination is easier information for the caregiver to provide and places fewer burdens on the caregiver and patient. It also provides the healthcare provider with a measure of time to help advise caregivers and recommend interventions and provide service organizations with measures of cost savings to support the impact of outreach and intervention. The final, definitive version of this paper has been published in the American Journal of Alzheimer's Disease and Other Dementias, Vol 27/Issue 4, June 2012 by SAGE Publications Ltd./SAGE Publications, Inc., All rights reserved.
    Author(s): Klug, M.G., Volkov, B., Muus, K., & Halaas, G.W.
    Date: June 2012
    Type: Journal Article
  • Growing Our Own: Building a Native Research Team
    This article highlights the team growth, increasing structure, student needs and the faculty and staff involved. It further addresses the support and educational aspects of growing an ongoing, multidisciplinary research team committed to ethical research in Native communities.
    Projects: National Indigenous Elder Justice Initiative, National Resource Center on Native American Aging
    Author(s): Gray, J.S., & Carter, P.M.
    Publication: Journal of Psychoactive Drugs, 44(2), 160-165
    Date: June 2012
    Type: Journal Article
  • Characteristics of US Medical Graduates and International Medical Graduates in North Dakota
    Examines where North Dakota's physicians attended medical school, their specialties and location of practice.
    Project: State Office of Rural Health
    Author(s): Klug, M., Hart, G., Peterson, M.
    Publication: North Dakota Health Workforce Fact Sheet Series, Number 5B
    Date: May 2012
    Type: Fact Sheet
  • Demographics of International Medical Graduates in North Dakota
    Examines where North Dakota's International Medical Graduates are from, what they specialize in and where they practice.
    Project: State Office of Rural Health
    Author(s): Klug, M., Hart, G., Peterson, M.
    Publication: North Dakota Health Workforce Fact Sheet Series, Number 5A
    Date: May 2012
    Type: Fact Sheet
  • Non-Direct Patient Care Physicians in North Dakota
    Examines where non-direct patient care physicians are located by sex and rurality in North Dakota.
    Project: State Office of Rural Health
    Author(s): Klug, M., Hart, G., Peterson, M.
    Publication: North Dakota Health Workforce Fact Sheet Series, Number 4
    Date: May 2012
    Type: Fact Sheet
  • Type of Employment for Physicians in North Dakota
    Examines the type of employment for North Dakota's physicians by sex, age and rurality.
    Project: State Office of Rural Health
    Author(s): Klug, M., Hart, G., Peterson, M.
    Publication: North Dakota Health Workforce Fact Sheet Series, Number 3
    Date: May 2012
    Type: Fact Sheet
  • Demographics of Direct Patient Care Physicians in North Dakota
    Examines the location of where direct patient care physicians practice by age, rurality and number of patients.
    Project: State Office of Rural Health
    Author(s): Klug, M., Hart, G., Peterson, M.
    Publication: North Dakota Health Workforce Fact Sheet Series, Number 2
    Date: May 2012
    Type: Fact Sheet
  • Projection of North Dakota Physicians: 2010-2040
    Describes a projection of both the population of North Dakota and physicians in North Dakota. Includes projection models, graphs, and tables.
    Author(s): Peterson, M., Klug, M., & Hart, G.
    Date: April 2012
    Type: Report
  • Effect of Outpatient Visits and Discharge Destination on Potentially Preventable Readmissions for Congestive Heart Failure and Bacterial Pneumonia
    Emphasizes the importance of receiving timely post-discharge outpatient care and appropriate discharge destination for reducing preventable hospital readmissions, especially but not exclusively among rural-based patients. Full report.
    Author(s): Klug, M., & Muus, K.
    Date: March 2012
    Type: Policy Brief
  • Availability of Direct Patient Care Physicians in North Dakota
    Examines the availability of direct patient care physicians in North Dakota by rurality, sex, medical school location, residency location.
    Project: State Office of Rural Health
    Author(s): Klug, M., Hart, G., Peterson, M.
    Publication: North Dakota Health Workforce Fact Sheet Series, Number 1
    Date: February 2012
    Type: Fact Sheet
  • Dementia Care Services Project: Continued Progress in Providing Assistance to Caregivers
    Provides information regarding the continued progress in providing assistance to caregivers of participates in the dementia care services project.
    Author(s): Volkov, B., Muus, K., & Klug MG.
    Date: September 2011
    Type: Policy Brief
  • North Dakota Dementia Care Services Project: Contributing to Health Cost Savings
    Author(s): Volkov, B., Muus, K., & Klug, MG.
    Date: September 2011
    Type: Fact Sheet
  • Physical Activity and Cervical Cancer Testing Among American Indian Women
    This study examined Pap screening prevalence and assessed whether physical activity was associated with screening adherence among AI women from 2 culturally distinct regions in the Northern Plains and the Southwest.
    Project: National Resource Center on Native American Aging
    Author(s): Muus, K., Baker-Demaray, T., Bogart, A., Duncan, G., Jacobsen, C., Buchwald, D., Henderson, J.
    Publication: The Journal of Rural Health, 28(3), 320-326
    Date: September 2011
    Type: Journal Article
  • Rural Mental Health Research White Paper for National Institute of Mental Health
    This report focused on the nature of rural mental health research, issues in rural mental health, and future areas for research addressing the needs and disparities in rural mental health. These topics are focused on four general areas — Access, Quality, Healthcare Reform, and Disparities.
    Author(s): Gray, J.
    Date: September 2011
    Type: Report
  • Setting Research Roots
    Dr. Jacque Gray cultivates the growth of American Indian researchers.
    Author(s): Morin, K.
    Publication: North Dakota Medicine, 36(3), 23-24
    Date: September 2011
    Type: Article
  • Dementia Care Services Project Benefiting Veterans in North Dakota
    Provides information regarding which veterans in North Dakota have benefited from the dementia care services project.
    Author(s): Muus, K., Volkov, B., & Klug, M.G.
    Date: April 2011
    Type: Fact Sheet
  • Dementia Care Services Project's Positive Impact on Caregiving and Cost Savings in North Dakota
    Provides information on how the dementia care services (DCS) project has had a positive impact on caregiving and cost savings in North Dakota. Covers estimated median long term care cost avoidance and total quarterly savings on hospital, ambulance, and 911 calls from participates in the DCS program. In addition, shows the percentage of caregivers who had taken healthcare actions following six months of program participation.
    Author(s): Muus, K., Volkov, B., Klug, M.G., & Mueller, J.
    Date: April 2011
    Type: Fact Sheet
  • Charting a New Course
    Dr. L. Gary Hart is the The Center for Rural Health's new director. Hart is a nationally recognized expert in rural healthcare delivery and healthcare workforce, and the CRH is excited to have him on board.
    Author(s): Henke, K.
    Publication: North Dakota Medicine, 35(5), 18-19
    Date: December 2010
    Type: Article
  • Dementia Care Services Project Benefiting North Dakotans
    Provides information on how North Dakotans have benefited from the dementia care services project including the percentage of individuals that completed care-related action steps and the likelihood to place individuals with dementia in a long term care facility (LTC).
    Author(s): Volkov, B., Muus, K., Klug, M.G., Mueller J., & Haley-Franklin, H.
    Date: December 2010
    Type: Fact Sheet
  • Dementia Care Services Project: Supporting Caregivers in North Dakota
    Author(s): Muus, K., Volkov, B., Klug, M., Mueller, J., & Haley-Franklin, H.
    Date: December 2010
    Type: Policy Brief
  • Geographic Differences in Potentially Preventable Readmission Rates in Rural and Urban Hospitals
    Presents a study that estimated Potentially Preventable Hospital Readmissions (PPRs) in three types of acute care hospitals: urban prospective payment system (PPS) hospitals, rural PPS hospitals, and Critical Access Hospitals (CAHs).
    Author(s): Klug, M., Knudson, A., & Muus, K.
    Date: November 2010
    Type: Policy Brief
  • Circles of Strength: A Case Description of Culturally Integrated Suicide Prevention
    This article presents a case description of an American Indian female at high risk for suicide in effort to document the potential effectiveness of a college student suicide prevention program designed for Northern Plains American Indian students.
    Author(s): Gray, J.S., & Muehlenkamp, J.J.
    Publication: Archives of Suicide Research, 14, 182-191
    Date: 2010
    Type: Journal Article
  • Potentially Preventable Readmissions in Rural Hospitals
    Examines potentially preventable readmission rates for rural and urban hospitals, and discusses the rural implications of policy initiatives to reduce readmission rates.
    Author(s): Klug, M., Muus, K., Casey, M., Moscovice, I.
    Date: August 2009
    Type: Policy Brief
  • A College Suicide Prevention Model for American Indian Students
    This article outlines the model developed for the American Indian Support Team from funding through the Garrett Lee Smith Campus Suicide Prevention Grant funded by the Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration to focus on reducing suicide risk of American Indian students at the University of North Dakota.
    Author(s): Muehlenkamp, J.J., Marrone, S., Gray, J.S., & Brown, D.
    Publication: Professional Psychology: Research and Practice , 40(2), 134-140
    Date: 2009
    Type: Journal Article
  • Health Insurance Coverage and Access to Healthcare for American Indian and Alaska Native Elders
    Reports findings from a study assessing health insurance coverage and access to healthcare among American Indian and Alaska Native elders (Native elders), using data from a national survey that included more than 8,300 Native elders.
    Author(s): Knudson, A.
    Date: October 2007
    Type: Policy Brief
  • Alcohol, Tobacco, and Illicit Drug Consumption and Consequences in North Dakota: The North Dakota Epidemiological Profile, 2007
    The report examines the prevalence and patterns of substance (alcohol, tobacco and other drug) use and consequences in North Dakota.
    Author(s): Muus, K., Gray, J., & the State Epidemiological Outcomes Workgroup
    Date: March 2007
    Type: Report
  • Demographics
    Facts and statistics on North Dakota's population. Includes information on populations change by county and frontier counties.
    Author(s): Gibbens, B.
    Date: April 2006
    Type: Fact Sheet
  • Zinc Affects Cognition and Psychosocial Function of Middle-School Children
    This study investigated the effects of dietary zinc intakes on cognition and psychosocial function in young adolescents. Zinc nutrition has been related to motor, cognitive and psychosocial function in very young children and adults, but there have been no studies of older children who may be at risk of zinc deficiency while undergoing rapid growth during puberty.
    Author(s): Penland, J.G., Lukaski, H.C., & Gray, J.S.
    Publication: The FASEB Journal, 19(5), A973
    Date: March 2005
    Type: Journal Article
  • Depression in Northern Plains Indians is Associated with Physical Health and Fitness, Dietary Intakes, Food Insecurity and Cultural Identification
    This study examined the relationships between depression and physical health and fitness, dietary intakes, food insecurity and cultural identification among Northern Plains American Indians.
    Author(s): Penland, J.G., Gray, J.S., Lambert, P., Gonzalez, J., Wilson, E.L., & Lukaski, H.C.
    Publication: The FASEB Journal, 18(4), A516
    Date: March 2004
    Type: Journal Article